Diabetes is a condition when the blood sugar level in our body rises up. When the glucose in the blood is less than 100 mg/dL before having a meal (fasting for minimum 8 hours) and less than 140 mg/dL post two hours of the intake of meal, it is said to be normal blood sugar level. When the production of insulin in our body is affected, it causes diabetes and there is no cure to this. Managing diabetes is the only way to lead a healthy life in case you are diabetic.
Types of Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes: When our immune system starts attacking and destroying the cells in our pancreas which is responsible for secreting insulin, it leads to Type 1 Diabetes. It is an auto-immune condition when our body stops producing insulin. Though this can appear at any age, children’s and young adults are more affected of this type. Patients with Type 1 Diabetes are in need of taking insulin on a regular basis.
Type 2 Diabetes: Type 2 Diabetes is a condition when our body becomes resistant to insulin, and sugar starts building up in our blood. This is the most common form of diabetes and can occur at any age. Most of the aged and middle-aged people in India suffer from this kind of diabetes.
Gestational Diabetes: This type of diabetes occurs mostly during pregnancy of women and mostly goes away when the pregnancy is over. Study suggests that women suffering from this form of diabetes are more prone to developing type-2 diabetes, later in life.
Other rare forms of diabetes include- monogenic diabetes and cystic fibrosis-related diabetes.
Causes of Diabetes
Type 1 form of diabetes is an auto-immune disease for which the exact reason is still unknown. It can be genetic in nature or due to some virus attack to the immune system.
Sedentary lifestyle and genes are the major reason for type 2 diabetes. Obesity or being over-weight can also lead to type 2 diabetes.
Hormonal changes during pregnancy leads to gestational diabetes. Over-weight women are most likely to suffer from this form of diabetes.
Symptoms of Diabetes
The common symptoms of diabetes include, high level of sugar in blood, frequent urination, feeling fatigue, blurry vision, weight loss, sores that takes time to heal, decreased sex drive, etc.
Treatment and Diagnosis
In type 1 diabetes, injecting insulin is used to treat the disease which suffices the hormones which our body can’t produce.
Regular exercise and healthy diet along with medication prescribed by the doctor is the cure for type 2 diabetes. Your doctor can also prescribe you insulin in case your blood sugar level keeps fluctuating.
For the treatment of gestational diabetes, it’s recommended to consult your doctor before taking any medicine, change of diet or type of exercise to do.
To diagnose any form of diabetes, blood test is required for the confirmation of the disease. The fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the A1C test are the most common tests prescribed to detect diabetes.
- Regular exercise for a fit and healthy life
- Avoid junk food and eat healthy and balanced diet
- Lower the consumption of saturated and trans fat, refined carbohydrates. Consume more fruits and green vegetables.
- Type 1 form of diabetes cannot be prevented due to its auto-immune nature.